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Hirosada (廣貞)

(R) Kataoka Gadô II as Ono no Tôfû and (L) Kataoka Ichizô I as Daroku in Ono no Tôfû aoyagi suzuri, Chikugo Theater, Osaka
Artist seal: Honda Kichi 飯田吉
No publisher seal
(H x W)
Chûban diptych nishiki-e
24.5 x 36.7 cm
Very good: Deluxe edition with metallics
Excellent color, embossing on Tofu's white robe, unbacked; minor soil and creasing near Daroku's right foot, thinned area on verso below Tôfû
Price (USD/¥):
$380 / Contact us to pay in yen (¥)

Order/Inquiry: HSD35


The play Ono no Tôfû aoyagi suzuri (Ono no Tôfû, the inkstone, and the green willow tree: 小野道風青柳硯) offers a fanciful retelling of events involving the legendary calligrapher Ono no Tôfû [Michikaze] (894-966: 小野の道風) during the reign of Emperor Yôzei (868-944). The historical Tôfû, grandson of a courtier-poet, Ono no Takamura, was a government official, poet, and calligrapher. In the latter capacity, he served three emperors and is considered one of the Sanseki (Three Brush Traces: 三跡), Japan's three greatest calligraphers. In Japanese legend and art, Tôfû is particularly well known as the figure who takes inspiration from a frog that attempted seven times to leap from a pond to an overhanging willow branch until finally reaching his perch on his eighth try. Likewise, Tôfû had attempted seven times without success to win a higher post in the imperial court, and so he took the frog's perseverence as a sign that he, too, should try yet another time, for which he was rewarded.

The play was written by Takdea Izumo I, Chikamatsu Hanji, Miyoshi Shôraku, and three others as a ningyô jôruri (puppet theater: 人形淨瑠璃) premiering in 1754 at the Takemoto no Shibai, Osaka. With a mischievious twist, the dramatization depicts Tôfû as an illiterate carpenter reared as a commoner (the result of a crime committed by his father, an exiled imperial councilor). Tôfû works at the imperial palace, where he is promoted to courtier. An enemy of the emperor, Tachibana Hayanari, plots to take over the country. One day, Tôfû observes frogs leaping among willow branches in a temple pond, which he interprets as a sign that the emperor is in danger from Hayanari. When Dotsoku no Daroku, an ally of Hayanari's, attempts to recruit Tôfû into the conspiracy, Tôfû pretends to accept the offer after the two fight and Tôfû tosses Daroku into the pond. When Tôfû is asked to sign a written affirmation of his loyalty to the planned usurpation of the throne, the illiterate Tôfû is able to do so only through a miracle initiated by his nurse, Horinni, who sacrifices herself and dips a brush in her blood. In the end, Tôfû and his allies (including Daroku, who switches sides and helps to hide the emperor) defeat Hayanari and his co-conspirators.


The series title in the upper right tricolor cartouche reads Chûkô aoi yanagi suzuri (Loyalty and filial piety of a young willow at the inkstone: 忠孝青柳硯). The willow is an obvious reference to the frog-leaping legend, the inkstone perhaps to Tôfû's perserverence at winning a more prestigious position at court. Hirosada's design highlights the confrontation scene during which Tôfû throws Daroku into the pond.

The robes worn by Gadô II are especially well rendered, with extensive karazuri ("empty rubbing" or blind-printing/embossing: 空摺) throughout the white robe and gold-colored (copper-rich) brass in the medallions on the purple robe.

References: IKBYS-IV, no. 322