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Archive: Hokushû (北洲)

Ichikawa Ebijûrô I (市川鰕十郎) as Hangadai Terukuni (判官代輝國) in Sugawara denju tenari kagami (Mirror of learning & transmitting Sugawara's secrets of calligraphy: 菅原伝授手習鑑), Kado Theater, Osaka
Shunkôsai Hokushû ga (春好斎北洲画)
No artist seal
Honsei 本清 (Honya Seishichi 本や清七) and Senri (泉理)
(H x W)
Ôban nishiki-e
38.0 x 26.3 cm
Excellent color, unbacked; Faint vertical centerfold line, flattened creases in lower corners, filled binding holes along left edge
Price (USD/¥):

Inquiry: HKS66


Sugawara denju tenarai kagami (Mirror of learning & transmitting Sugawara's secrets of calligraphy: 菅原伝授手習鑑) is a jidaimono ("period piece" or history play: 時代物) that premiered in 8/1746 as a ningyô jôruri (puppet play: 人形淨瑠璃) at the Takemoto no shibai, Osaka. It is one of the most admired of all puppet dramas, whose four authors also composed two other masterpieces in the 1740s, Kandehon chûshingura (Writing manual for the treasury of the loyal retainers: 假名手本忠臣蔵) and Yoshitsune senbon zakura (Yoshitsune and the thousand cherry trees: 義経千本桜).

The play is based on legends surrounding the life of Sugawara Michizane (845-903: 菅原道真), also known as Kan Shôjô (菅丞相). Founder of the Kanke school of calligraphy and a favorite of Emperor Daigo, Sugawara ran afoul of an envious political rival named Fujiwara no Tokihira (Fujiwara no Shihei in the play) and was exiled to Kyûshû. After Sugawara's death, plague and drought spread throughout Japan and the sons of Emperor Daigo died in succession. The Imperial Palace's Great Audience Hall was struck repeatedly by lightning, igniting fires, and Kyoto was battered by rainstorms and floods. Attributing these calamities to Sugawara's vengeful spirit, the imperial court built and dedicated to him a Shinto shrine in 986 called Kitano Tenmangu (北野天満宮) in Kyoto. The court also posthumously restored his title and office, and removed records of his exile. Sugawara was deified as a Tenjin (Heavenly [Sky] deity: 天神), and many Shinto shrines in Japan were and continue to be dedicated to him.

As the drama unfolds in the play, Sugawara (Kan Shôjô) is a calligraphy master and Minister of the Right who shares power with Shihei, Minister of the Left. Sugawara is arrested on a trumped-up charge of plotting to overthrow the emperor and becomes the target of an assassination plot headed by Shihei. Sugawara is exiled to Kyûshû, where he dies cursing Shihei. Ultimately, the villain is slain by the calligrapher's son, Kan Shûsei, the house of Sugawara restored, and Sugawara pronounced a deity.

As for the role of Hangandai Terukuni (判官代輝國), he is an official from the court of the retired emperor who is sent to escort Sugawara into exile.


Ebijûrô's splendid costume features an over-sized sleeve in ryûjin-maki style ("dragon god scroll": 龍神巻). The billowing rectangular form is marked by a large mon (crest) reading "Teru" (輝), the first character in the role name Terukuni. Ryûjin-maki sleeves are made rigid by bamboo inserts and always emblazoned with large mon, while the right sleeves are removed from the arm and fixed at the back in a manner intended to resemble noshi (flattened and dried abalone strips: 熨斗).

The poem reads: 鶏の音に迎ひを急け花の旅 (possibly read as Niwatori no oto ni mukai hi o kyû ke hana no tabi: "Hurrying to the sound of the rooster along the flower journey"). It is signed 新升 (Shinshô), the actor’s poetry name.

This is one of Hokushû's finest single-figure designs. The colors on our impression are especially fine with a strong purple and yellow background.


KNZ, no. 219; WAS-IV, no. 176