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Archive: Tessai Nobukatsu (哲齋信勝), earlier called Shigenao (重直)

Onoe Baikô (尾上梅幸) [Kikugorô III: 尾上菊五郎] as Kanshôjô (管相々) in Sugawara denjû tanarai kagami, Takeda no shibai, Osaka
Tessai Nobukatsu ga (哲斎信勝画)
No artist seal
Tenki (Tenmaya Kihei: 天満屋喜兵衞)
(H x W)
Ôban nishiki-e
37.8 x 25.5 cm
Very good with embossing
Excellent color and very good condition (full image size with visible margin along top; a few filled-in tiny album binding holes at left edge)
Price (USD/¥):

Inquiry (NKS05)


The play Sugawara denju tenarai kagami (Mirror of learning & transmitting Sugawara's secrets of calligraphy: 菅原伝授手習鑑) is based on legends surrounding the life of Sugawara Michizane (845-903: 菅原道真), also known as Kan Shôjô (菅丞相). Founder of the Kanke school of calligraphy and a favorite of Emperor Daigo, Sugawara ran afoul of an envious political rival named Fujiwara no Tokihira (Fujiwara no Shihei in the play) and was exiled to Kyûshû. After Sugawara's death, plague and drought spread throughout Japan and the sons of Emperor Daigo died in succession. The Imperial Palace's Great Audience Hall was struck repeatedly by lightning, igniting fires, and Kyoto was battered by rainstorms and floods. Attributing these calamities to Sugawara's vengeful spirit, the imperial court built and dedicated to him a Shinto shrine in 986 called Kitano Tenmangu (北野天満宮) in Kyoto. The court also posthumously restored his title and office, and removed records of his exile. Sugawara was deified as a Tenjin (Heavenly [Sky] deity: 天神), and many Shinto shrines in Japan were and continue to be dedicated to him.

This jidaimono ("period piece" or history play: 時代物) premiered in 8/1746 as a ningyô jôruri (puppet play: 人形淨瑠璃) at the Takemoto no Shibai, Osaka. It is one of the most admired of all puppet dramas, whose four authors also composed two other masterpieces in the 1740s, Kanadehon chûshingura (Writing manual for the treasury of the loyal retainers: 假名手本忠臣蔵) and Yoshitsune senbon zakura (Yoshitsune and the thousand cherry trees: 義経千本桜). In the current play, Sugawara (Kan Shôjô) is a calligraphy master and Minister of the Right who shares power with Shihei, Minister of the Left. Sugawara is arrested on a trumped-up charge of plotting to overthrow the emperor and becomes the target of an assassination plot headed by Shihei. Sugawara is exiled to Kyûshû, where he dies cursing Shihei. Ultimately, the villain is slain by the calligrapher's son, Kan Shûsei, the house of Sugawara is restored, and Sugawara is pronounced a deity.


Nobukatsu has depicted a scene from Act IV when the exiled Kan Shôjô vows to journey to the summit of Mount Tenpai to follow austere disciplines, swear oaths to the gods, and become a ghostly lord of thunder. As he speaks, a storm rises up, and despite the efforts of his retainers to stop him, he flies off into the sky, already beginning to transform into a vengeful thunder spirit.

There are very few known prints by Nobukatsu, and this is surely one of his finest — indeed, it is one of the more visually compelling designs in all of pre-Tenpô-period Osaka printmaking. The violent lightening storm with its huge yellow-tinted lightning bolts and slashing rain is of the sort that will repeatedly plague Kyoto and the imperial court as punishment for Kan Shôjô's exile and death.

Nearly every impression we've seen of this dramatic design has some substantial degree of fading and some trimming (for example, see the collections cited below). Our print, however, retains very good color and size.

References: IKBYS-II, no. 391 (faded); PPO, no. 56 (faded); SDK, no. 535 (faded)